Glossary


Metacarpals: Are numbered MC1 through to MC5, the bones in the palm of our hand. (MC standing for meta-carpals)

Carpals: Eight bones that make up the wrist.

Metatarsals: They span the main body of the foot between the ankle and the toes.

Tarsals: Seven bones that articulate to create the ankle and part of the foot.

Proximal: Closer to the head.

Intermediate Phalanx: Phalanx in between the proximal and distal phalanges.

Distal: Furthest away from the head.

Palmar: Palm side of the hand.

Dorsal: The top of the foot or the back of the hand.

Plantar: Bottom of the foot, (the sole).

Medial: Towards the centre of the body, the midline.

Lateral: Further from the midline.

Posterior: Towards the back of the body, the opposite to anterior.

Anterior: Towards the front of the body.

Maxilla: The top jaw.

Manual Phalanges: What we see as the fingers. There are only proximal and distal phalanges in the thumb, and proximal, intermediate and distal in the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers.

Pedal Phalanges: What we see as the toes. There are only proximal and distal phalanges in the big toe, and proximal, intermediate and distal in the second, third, fourth and fifth toes.


Abscesses: Enclosed collections of liquefied tissue (pus) in the body. They are the result of the body's inflammatory defence reaction to the presence of foreign material, or injury.

Achsoosteolysis: progressive absorption of individual bones, commonly phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals and is of unknown cause.

Ankylosed: Fixation of a joint by fibrous union or bony union.

Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS): Bony spine at the base of the nasal aperture.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. There are multiple causes.

Bifurcate: divided into two sections/branches.

Claw hand:

Cloacae: Holes created in bone cortex by the discharge of pus from an internal abscess.

Concentric Diaphyseal Remodelling (CDR):

Cortical Bone: The outmost layer of a bone.

Cyst : A cavity within bone or soft tissue.

Eburnation: Polishing of joint surface caused by wear and eventual destruction of cartilage, allowing bone on bone contact.

Enthesopathies: New bone formation at site of attachment of muscle tendons or ligaments.

Excoriation: Superficial surface damage, scratch of skin.

Exostoses: A development of new bone from original bone surface.

Facet: An area of articulation.

Fibulae: (Fibula Pl.) The outer and smaller of the two bones in the lower leg.

Flat Feet: A condition in which the arch of the instep is flattened so that the entire sole rests on the ground.

Foramen: Normal openings in the bone found in certain places all over the skeleton, through which blood vessels and nerves can pass.

Halitosis: The condition of having foul-smelling breath.

Hallux: The first or big toe.

Inflammatory Pitting: Surface pitting adjacent to joint surface.

Interosseous: The area between bones, for example, between the tibia and fibula.

Juxta-Articular: zone immediately adjacent to joint surface.

Knife-edge Remodelling : Concentric remodelling that is maximal at the medial and lateral sides of the metatarsals, producing a knife shaped bone, i.e. a 'sharp' superior and inferior borders.

Lagophthalmos: Paralysis of lower eyelids.

Lesions: A pathological abnormality of tissue.

Longitudinal arch collapse: Collapse of the longitudinal arch of the foot, resulting in flat foot.

Lytic lesion: Abnormal localised loss of bone tissue.

Medullary Cavity: The centre of a bone which may contain marrow.

Metaphysis: Zone near the ends of the shaft of a long bone.

Nodular: Small, firm and knotty.

Oedema: The presence of an excessive amount of fluid in or around cells, tissues or serous cavities of the body.

Ossification: Soft tissue becoming bone through mineralisation.

Osteoarthritis: Progressive destruction of joint cartilage through degeneration.

Osteomyelitis: Infection of bone.

Palate: The roof of the mouth.

Periosteum: The thin layer of tissue covering the surface of bones, except on areas of articulation.

Plantar: Pertaining to the sole of the foot.

Porosity: A state in which many small holes/openings pass through a surface.

Postcranial: Refers to all of skeleton except skull.

Proximal: Nearest to a point of reference or centre of an object.

Pulp space infection: Infection in the palmar tissue at finger ends.

Purulent: Associated with pus.

Pyogenic bacteria: Pus producing bacteria.

Rhinomaxillary: The area of the central part of the upper jaw and the nose.

Septic: Infected.

Subcutaneous: Beneath the skin.

Subluxation: A partial dislocation of a joint.

Subperiosteal: Beneath the perisoteum.

Synovial Joint: A freely moving joint, characterized by a capsule filled with synovial fluid.

Taphonomy: Changes or damage to human remains after death due to environmental conditions above and below ground and handling after remains have been exhumed.

Terminal: The furthest part from a point of reference.

Tibia: The inner and larger of the bones in the lower leg.

Trabecula: Honeycombe like structure of bone usually found at the metaphysis and epiphysis.

Transverse arch: The arch spanning the width of the foot.

Ulceration: The development or formation of ulcers.

Woven bone: Newly developing bone tissue.